The Importance of ISO and IEC International Energy Standards

and a new Total Approach to Energy Statistics & Forecasting

Key words:  International Energy Standards, Complete Energy Matrix


International Standards are playing a crucially important role in all industries for the rational production, international terminologies, safety and health protection, measurement, analysis, quality control and environmental protection, particularly in the energy field, where standards for the interfaces in energy flows are indispensable, such as electric connectors, fuelling devices, calibration methods and electrical safety.  Of particular significance is the SI system of units and the OSI standards which allow the world-wide harmonization of data exchanges and computers.

International standardization is shared between the International Organization for Standardization ISO for all non-electric matters, founded just after World War II as successor of ISA and the much older International Electrotechnical Commission IEC, both based in Geneva, Switzerland, in the same building.

Besides the specific standards for petroleum, coal, nuclear and hydro power, solar energy, wind power, hydrogen and the vast field of electricity, the energy standards series ISO13600 allows the characterization, analysis and comparison of all energy systems and soon will issue a global energy statistics and planning matrix for the transition to environmentally sound sustainable economics.  These standards allow integrated resource planning, including all new renewable options, such as the increasingly important direct and indirect solar energy, co-generation, hybrid systems, small decentralized units, bio energy, ambient temperature use by heat pumps and substitutions of muscle powered systems or vice versa, besides the more efficient production and use of conventional finite and renewable energy sources.

Energy usefulness and drawbacks - a brief history

For millions of years man had to rely only on renewable energy offered by nature:  sunshine made biomass for peat and fuel wood grow for direct use or to make charcoal to warm dwellings, grill meat or cook meals of sun-grown food for human or feed for animal muscle power.  Oxen were pulling carts and ploughs in some areas and elephants were moving timber and doing other heavy work elsewhere, while horses, camels, mules or sledge dogs made mobility easier than by using man’s own muscles.  Sun-powered air and water movements made wind and water mills turn, sail-ships allowed man to conquer the oceans and discover new lands.  Still today a large part of the energy comes in the form of muscle power with 40 Million bicycles produced annually in China alone and many more in other countries with the increasing popularity of city bikes, mountain bikes and electric bikes in industrialized countries;  also an increasing number of nations are relying on biomass and other renewables to save foreign exchange and curb pollution.

This happy sustainable era came to an end when the dark age of energy started with the discovery of coal which sparked the industrial revolution turning communities black and making life miserable by diseases from pollution.

Unfortunately coal was used to run James Watt’s steam engine which started an unprecedented change in human life.  Steamships started ploughing the waters and steam locomotives were the forerunners of modern railway systems for a hundred years before diesel engines and electrification took over.  Internal combustion engines - the first ones running on hydrogen in the early 1800 - started the revolution of mass mobility by displacing horses, long before the technical unit “horse power“ or HP was replaced by the SI unit kW.  An energy quantum leap occurred when crude oil was discovered and refined to fuel engines and heating systems.  Petroleum and gas were taking over nearly everything needing cheap energy from ocean vessels, to motor bikes, cars, trucks, airplanes, power stations and stoves, but, tragically, it enabled man also to fight the most disastrous wars in history with bombers, tanks and warships, not to mention the nuclear bomb, leading to many wars for energy reserves but also to the equally disastrous nuclear power stations, besides the fatal effects on the health of life, environment and climate - a blessing of technology in disguise.

Fig 1 shows the energy development over the last 3000 years and what is predictable in the next three millennia.

The vertical scale shows the prime energy usage of the world economy in PWh (1 PWh = 1000 TWh = 1 Trillion kWh)

The declining broad line on top signifies the total usable energy on earth, i.e. the assumed sum of all available forms of prime energy within the reach of humankind over time.  It is declining because of the depletion of non-renewable energy resources and the irreversible and worsening damage to some of the renewable sources of energy, like biomass due to desertification, erosion and slowly depleting geo-energy.

The non-renewable energy curve started to peak in the late 18th century, when the first coal was exploited industrially.  It shows also the steep growth of the fossil and fissile energy sector, with the former accelerating before and the latter after the 2nd world war.  They all would soon be completely depleted at incalculable risks to the health, climate and environment, if cleaner renewable substitutes are not introduced soon.  The shown climax of the non-renewable energy sector is inevitable because of the finite quantity of these resources.

The renewable energy curve commenced at the dawn of human history with the slowly increasing use of passive solar energy, fuel wood, ancient wind and water mills at a moderate level whereas transportation had to rely on muscles and wind.  Cooking was done by firewood for millennia.  This curve increased in parallel with the fossil and fissile peak while renewable forms of energy represented less than a quarter of total prime energy use in recent years.

From ISO Standards Handbook / ISO 31-3 (1992)

  Name of unit
Symbol for unit
Conversion Factors and remarks
All kinds of energy
  1 J =  1 Nm = the work done when the  point of application of a force  of 1 N is displaced through a distance of 1 m in the direction of the force
W, (A)
W = ò F dr

potential energy
Ep, V,

Ep = ò F dr. where F is a conservative force

kinetic energy
Ek, T
Ek = ½ mv2

Rate of energy transfer
1 W = 1 J/s
Ratio of an output power to an input power

After the turn of the 20th century there will be two choices without much room for compromise: 
A - Go down to the austerity level of the pre-industrial period, if not enough renewable energy is generated


B - Increase the renewable energy sector, to allow economies to grow further in a sustainable way.

The possible further growth of total energy consumption has a maximum sustainable energy limit, depending on the carrying capacity of the Earth, which can be reached only by renewable energy of various types, if population growth will slow down and huge investments go into the renewable energy sector.

Optimistic assumption B is only going to happen, if politicians, planners, entrepreneurs and banks commence without delay to re-channel available human, technical and financial resources into the mass production of renewable energy technologies.  From the turn of the century this long-term survival scenario will necessitate growing annual investments to the extent of over one Trillion Dollars into sustainable energy systems;  this will exceed past non-renewable energy investments and world military expenditures.  ISO and IEC offer most of the needed standards to achieve this goal.

Future energy options

The increasing energy demand caused by an incessantly raising world population and improving standards of living can be satisfied by the two aforementioned energy categories.  The presently predominant category consists of the finite natural resources coal, petroleum, fossil gas and radioactive materials.  The older but longer term category is made up of the renewable, i.e. sustainable natural energy sources delivered by the sun like solar energy in various forms, wind, hydropower, tidal and wave power, biomass and geothermal energy.  Fig. 2 shows the energy family tree with its relevant ISO and IEC Committees. 

Definition of “energy service“ as common denominator of energy systems

The enormous amount of prime energy used in our days - approaching 100 PWh or 360 EJ per year - is meaningless in terms of useful energy, if the overall energy efficiency of an energy system is not known according to Fig.3, which shows the generalized definition of ISO 13602.  In other words, to the energy user it does not matter how much coal or gas is used to run a power station, nor the amount of kWh or energyware produced, but rather how much useful heat comes out of a kettle to make a cup of tea or how many miles a vehicle can drive with a given payload.


Figure 3:    Energy Flows within Technical Energy Systems


Hence only the composite efficiency of the fuel production, power station, power transmission and final consumption system determine the quantity of prime energy needed to render the desired service like a cup of hot tea or driving to work, apart of the environmental the whole energy system has on the environment, health and climate.  There were long arguments inTC203 about the definition of “energy service“ or “useful energy“, because some experts did not want to distinguish the clearly defined measurable energy system output, like the luminous flux of a light bulb measured in Lumen, from the many interpretations of what this output could achieve for the user like projecting films of a doubtful cultural value or illumination quality of a work place.  Other vagueries were the effectiveness of a radiator, which depends on the insulation of the heated space and the leaks through doors and windows due to human behavior or the comfort and acceleration power of a car.  However in all these cases the measurable energy consumption systems output - called energy service - is the common denominator for the user, who can make the best use of this service or waste it with unreasonable car accelerations, sleep in heated rooms with open windows or abuse it for perverse purposes.

The energy service or useful energy is always measured in SI units that relate to the quantity of energy leaving the energy consumption system, such as mechanical work, temperature in a defined space, flow under a certain pressure etc. - see boxes.

     Energy service:  Useful energy output of any final technical energy
consumption system.  Examples of energy services:
       - mechanical work, transportation, force        

     - pumping, venting and vacuum applications

     - thermal uses (specific heating and cooling)

     - audio and ultrasound applications

     - vibrations for useful purposes

     - lighting / illumination / magnification

     - magnetic applications

     - data processing, information

     - telecommunication, television, visual displays

     - physical therapy and diagnostics

     - measurement and control

     - electrochemical and physical processing


ISO and IEC technical committees on energy production and use

From the early days of ISO energy was a dominant subject for standardization and in the much older IEC it was even the “raison d’être“ of the commission itself, since electricity is one of the main energy carriers.  Fifty years of energy related standardization in specific areas of ISO and IEC are culminating now in the all-embracing TC203 Technical Energy Systems, which started work in 1991, defining common denominators like “energy service“ for the final output of an energy consumption system, “gray energy“ for the embedded energy in products and “energy ware“ for tradable energy carriers.  ISO/TC203 and its advanced methods for analysis are elaborated in the last chapter.


Embedded energy:  the sum of the needed energy to produce or process inputs to be 

embedded in technical energy systems which may be partly reclaimable.
Note:  Gross embedded, in German called “gray“, energy is the total energy needed to

produce or process any such inputs.  Net embedded energy is the difference between

the gross embedded energy and the reclaimed embedded, i.e. saved energy from

technical energy systems decommissioning and through recycling.

Some of the technical committees of ISO and IEC which are related to energy generation are shown in Fig.2.  Historically energy standardization started in ISO just after the 2nd world war in 1947 with ISO/TC 27 on solid mineral fuels, i.e. coal and coke with its related TC 82 on mining.  TC 28 on petroleum products and lubricants started also in 1947 with its related TC 67 on materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries.  TC 85 on nuclear energy started in 1956 and TC 180 on solar thermal energy in 1980.  Natural Gas followed in 1988 with TC 193 and gas turbines are dealt with in TC 192, and - last but not least - with ISO/TC 197 work started in 1990 on the cleanest of all fuels hydrogen. 

IEC covers with TC 2 rotating machinery in general and with TC 4 hydraulic turbines for electricity generation in particular;  TC 45 covers nuclear instrumentation, TC 82 is dealing with photovoltaics and TC 88 with wind turbines.

Fields like energy from biomass, which is the fourth largest energy supply sector representing over one seventh of total prime energy production, the large geothermal sector and the advancing tidal and wave power systems are not yet covered by any international technical standard committees, but should be dealt with soon by ISO in view of their future energy generation potential.

On the energy transportation and demand side there are many active ISO committees:  ISO/TC 8 is dealing with ships and marine technology, TC 11 covers boilers and pressure vessels, TC 20 aircraft and space vehicles, TC 22 road vehicles, TC 23 tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry, TC 29 small tools, TC 39 machine tools, TC 58 gas cylinders, TC 70 internal combustion engines, TC 72 textile machinery, TC 86 refrigeration, TC96 cranes, TC 100 chains and wheels for power transmission, TC 101 continuous mechanical handling equipment, TC 110 industrial trucks, TC 112 vacuum technology, TC 115 pumps, TC 116 space heating, TC 117 industrial fans, TC 118 compressors, pneumatic tools and machines, TC 127 earth moving machinery, TC 131 fluid power systems, TC 148 sewing machines, TC 149 cycles (in connection with muscle power), TC 178 lifts, escalators and passenger conveyers, TC 188 small crafts including their propulsion and gaseous fuel systems, TC204 transport information and control systems and TC 28 thermal turbines for industrial applications.

IEC’s TC 9 covers electric traction equipment, TC 17 switchgear and control gear, TC 18 electrical installations of ships and offshore units, TC 20 electric cables, TC 21 secondary cells and batteries, TC 22 power electronics, TC 26 electric welding, TC 27 industrial electroheating equipment, TC 34 lamps & related equipment, TC 35 primary cells & batteries, TC 59 electrical household appliances, TC 69 electrical road vehicles & industrial trucks and TC 90 superconductivity, to mention just the more important subjects, apart from the many related standards on materials, components, measurement & testing and electricity installations. 

Energy safety, health & environment protection through ISO and IEC

Most technical energy concepts affect the life, climate and environment if they are not safely engineered and monitored.  Both, ISO and IEC, run many technical committees which produced hundreds of international standards helping to better protect the life, biosphere and climate from adverse effects of energy systems. 

ISO’s TC 21 covers equipment for fire protection & fire fighting, TC 30 measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits for fuels, TC 43 acoustics and their effects on humans and the environment, TC 92 fire safety, TC 94 personal safety, TC 108 mechanical vibration and shocks, TC 113 hydrometric determinations, TC 135 non-destructive testing, TC 138 plastic pipes, fittings & valves for fluids, TC 146 air quality, TC 158 analysis of gases, TC 161 control & safety devices for non-industrial gas-fired appliances & systems, TC 163 thermal insulation related to energy services in the form of heat, TC 176 covers the all-important quality management & assurance with its ISO9000 standards series, TC 185 safety devices for protection against excessive pressure; TC 190 soil quality  needed to protect soils from the effects of energy releases, TC 205 building environment design helping the energy conservation and efficiency and - last but not least - TC 207 with its crucially important ISO 14000 series on environmental management, auditing, labeling and life cycle assessment. 

IEC’s most relevant bodies related to electrical energy safety, efficiency and environment protection are IEC/TC 13 on electrical energy measurement & control, important for energy management systems, TC 31 on electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres and for the detection of flammable gases, TC 50 on environmental testing, TC 56 on dependability of electrical systems, TC 61 on safety of household appliances and TC 75 on classification of environmental conditions.

The challenge of sustainable energy development 

The term energy sustainability emerged from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio in 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed.  Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the Charter.  These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical and educational framework.

A lot was done in many countries towards the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress was not fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate and health.  Global warming is accelerating and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of development.  Asian cities are beating all pollution records and „Greenhouse“ gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers and record weather disasters at a frightening pace.

Energy investments, research money and standardization efforts have to be re-channeled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one Trillion Dollars per year.  This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention also by ISO and IEC.  For example there is no ISO/TC yet on biomass energy, which is the fourth largest energy resource after the three short-lived fossil options.  Biomass will increase in importance again - as it was over the last millennia - when fossil fuels are nearing depletion.

It was stressed often enough in the media and by experts that emissions from energy systems must drastically be reduced.  Everybody knows by now the terrible effects of traffic emissions on the health in big cities, where daily thousands of lung patients need medical care.  Everybody knows of the disastrous effects of fossil fuels on the environment and climate, especially insurance companies with their skyrocketing payments for weather catastrophes.  The rising ocean levels can be measured year by year, endangering coastal zones and Islands.  No longer can one ignore these manmade energy problems and the more rigid enforcement of ISO and IEC standards is essential in solving them.  ISO standards on air, water and soil will help the curb the harm caused by finite energies.

The steep increase of the total energy consumption in the last 100 years is nearly identical with the exponential population growth.  This phenomena has to be drastically changed, if we do not want to exceed the carrying capacity of our planet.  Since the average energy intensity per capita has incessantly grown since over a century, the task of implementing sustainable development is a prerequisite for worldwide prosperity and well-being.

Energy efficiency investments have the best return and produce the cleanest energy.  Energy which is not used, instead of being wasted on inefficient generation or applications, is in fact the most viable option.  Therefore energy efficiency investments must rank on top of the investment agenda, ranging from advanced light sources, saving over 80 % energy compared with incandescent or halogen light bulbs, to healthy muscle power, improved building and refrigerator insulations and load control, to save base load and peak energy.

Taking the external cost of environmental and health damage of energy systems into account, the presently dominating fossil and fissile options have no chance to compete with renewable energy systems.  Ask insurance companies about their premiums for nuclear power stations;  the answer is: “infinite“, because of the incalculable risks of human or material failures.  Ask the governments, how much they spent on nuclear waste disposal measures.  Answer:  Billions of citizen’s tax money are not accounted for.

Ask some of the coal producing countries from Germany to China how much subsidies they give for coal production and how much health cost this is causing.  It is a waste of over 10 Billion $ in the case of Germany and a multiple of it in China with their artificially low coal price at only one quarter of world market prices to the detriment of their environ­ment and citizens health.  The unit costs even of solar systems are lower than nuclear systems which their bad efficiency.  Once solar systems will be produced on the same GW scale as fossil and fissile energy systems, they will beat all records.  The actual annual solar capacity increase is less than 100 MW, compared with the rising Gigawatts of their unsustainable competitors.  However, clean hydro and wind power are still unchallenged as the cheapest renewable energy sources.

After the Rio Conference on Environment & Development in 1992 the book “Changing Course“ by Swiss industrialist Dr. Stephan Schmidheiny, who acted as Chief Editor and Chairman of the Business Council of Sustainable Development, alerted the world about the enormous task of investing on a much larger scale into sustainable systems.  In 1996 he published the book “Financing Sustainable Development“, pointing to the key problem of redirecting investments into sustainable systems.  Energy is with over one Trillion $ per year indeed the largest investment segment needing urgent redirection.  Another good side of sustainable energy systems is that they create more jobs than any conventional energy option, since they are more labor intensive than the exhaustible resource-intensive fossil and fissile systems - good news for the millions of unemployed. 

ISO methods for energy systems analysis (ISO13602)

Energy should always have a useful purpose in terms of the actual service rendered to humankind, which can be expressed and measured in SI units.  The aim of an energy system is not to produce or use as much “energy ware“, byproducts and releases as possible, but rather serve its final purpose as efficiently and sustainably as possible at minimum cost to the user at minimum harm to the community.  The common denominator of an overall energy system is the widely used English-American term “energy service“ or “Nutzenergie“ (useful energy) in German.

The new standard ISO13602 Methods for analysis of technical energy systems allows to analyze and compare all energy systems from the natural resource input to their useful output, equitably based on their common denominator “energy service“ and with all their positive and detrimental outside effects.  The total cost of their emissions, their net gray i.e. re-usable embedded energy can be determined, total and relative efficiencies can be calculated and their life cycles and risks can be assessed with this new standard tool in conjunction with the many existing and emerging standards on specific energy systems or parts thereof.


ISO and IEC will help saving our planet for future generations !

Why is a more complete energy data base needed ?

The world energy supply will be undergoing fundamental change in the near future due to the depletion of mineral resources and environ-mental constraints.  For the enhancement of social and economic development more clean, sustainable energy sources must be harnessed at an accelerating pace, besides more efficient energy uses, if humankind wants to maintain the comforts of modern technology and mobility.  Fig. 1 shows the history of energy sources with the forthcoming restructuring process.  The mineral resource depletion midpoint peak will be reached early in the 21st Century.

Hydropower and geothermal energy were often the only specifically mentioned renewable energy resources, sometimes complemented by the growing wind power and biomass with the remark that not much statistical evidence existed about non-commercial energy sources like fuel wood or private wind water pumps.

Millions of muscle-powered vehicles and work animals were missing in the statistics and thus were not part of any energy models in spite of their huge TWh order of magnitude. 

Fig. 5   New International Energy Statistics and Forecasting Matrix 

The most important figures for the national energy planning are the columns “max“, where the maximum practical potential of each indigenous energy type has to be estimated. 

A new energy statistics data base methodology and forecasting matrix is needed, which includes all energy sources in order to make complete energy planning and forecasting possible, based on all viable energy supplies, taking also into account all transport options, since transport represents one of the main energy demand sectors and hitherto worst polluters. 

New energy data base matrix

For the 1997 columns of Fig. 5 some data can be found in IEA, WEC and other statistics, especially for the traditional energy resources.  The same might be true for the forecasts for 2000 and 2010 in many countries. In the expla-natory notes 3.01 to 3.17 reference is made to the relevant IEA statistics questionnaires.

The first 4 lines comprising the finite energy resources can be filled in from existing statistical information sources such as national inputs for IEA and WEC, complemented by the total estimated co-generation (CHP) energy (heat) from all these energy options, including of course all private co-generation stations. 

General explanations about the main headings: 

1)  Total number of units = number of coal & nuclear power stations, refineries, oil & gas fields & power stations, vehicles or animals etc. (estimated until there are precise data). 

2)  Total generation capacity is the generation capacity of the respective electric power stations (incl. CHP co-generation) and/or the separate heating systems. 

3)  Total final energy delivered to the users. 

4)  "max" is the maximum available indigenous energy for each option, i.e. the limits of the domestic energy and energy export capability of each country, considering both the depletion of non-renewable energy resources and the ultimate limits to renewable energy harnessing.  Consult specialized NGOs, Universities and/or Institutes if necessary to quantify some of these energy sources and systems. 

Special advice on some of the energy options is given with following matrix references: 

3.01   Total calorific value of coal and peat for energy uses only (derived from IEA "COAL" questionnaire). 

3.02        Total calorific value of crude oil to refineries in 1st column.  Total calorific value of petroleum products to users including power stations in last column (derived from IEA "OIL" questionnaire). 

3.03   Total gross calorific value of inland finite gas consumption delivered to users including power station consumption (see also IEA questionnaire "NATURAL GAS" item IB p.2). 

3.04  Estimated total calorific value of fissile matter in 1st column and total net electric energy delivered from power stations in last column (see IEA questionnaire "ELECTRICITY & HEAT" p. 3). 

3.05   Co-generation is expressed as the total additional energy content from fossil and fissile power stations delivered to the heat users (s. also CHP in IEA questionnaire "ELECTRICITY&HEAT" p.7 ).

3.06   Biomass is a complex matter.  Partly it is commercially traded, but partly it is internally used on farms, in sugar mills, saw mills, private homes etc., which must be estimated for this forecast. 

Biomass includes wood-fuels, agricultural energy crops & residues, municipal waste, black liquor, commercial & non-commercial, liquid & gaseous bio-fuels (s. also IEA questionnaire "COAL" p.14). 

Wood-fuels include fuelwood, forestry and mill residues, energy plantations like willow, poplar, eucalyptus etc. and charcoal & pellets made from such wood-fuels. 

Agricultural energy crops & residues include herbaceous & perennial plants like miscantus, reed grass, rapeseed, bagasse, straw, stalks, husks and dung and pellets made thereof. 

3.07   Bio-Gas comprises an estimate of all commercial and non-commercial sources directly used or supplied to pipelines, fuel cells stations etc.  Its calorific value is part of total biomass (3.06).  Biogas includes landfill & sludge gas, digester gas, gasified biomass etc. as sub-products of total biomass  (to be included in total biomass energy content of 3.06). 

3.08   Bio-Fuels (liquid) comprise all options such as ethanol from sugar cane, bio-diesel from rapeseed, methanol from any biomass etc.  Their calorific value is part of total biomass under 3.06 i.e. the liquid bio-fuels ethanol, methanol, bio-diesel, alcohols etc. are sub-products of total biomass  (to be included in total biomass of 3.06). 

3.09   Co-generation from any biomass energy systems (see also CHP in IEA questionnaire "ELECTRICITY & HEAT"). 

3.10     Hydrogen in liquefied or gaseous form from any sources.  It is only an energy carrier.  Hydrogen may come from renewable or fossil sources listed in the respective lines and is indicative only. 

3.11   Hydropower max. potential can be derived from hydrological maps and statistics.  The viability of possible sites as regards accessibility, distances to electricity consumers or the environ-mental acceptability are other considerations, which can be explained in an annex.  The Wave and Tidal power potential can be derived from coastline configurations and their topography.  Hydro, wave, tidal & wind power is mostly for electricity and expressed as such.  Direct mechanical uses must be expressed in GW & TJ. (see also IEA "ELECTRICITY" Table 1+2). 

3.12   Hydro Pumping capacity helps to generate peak power.  Indicate the max. potential and explain the energy sources such as excess base load power capacity, mid-day PV capacity etc.  Hydro pumping capacity is indicative only because it uses electric energy solely for hydraulic energy storage and re-use in peak hours  

3.13   Wind power including also mechanical wind pumps and mills – see wind energy potential in national wind atlases. 

3.14   Geothermal Power potential must not only include natural aquifer resources, but also includes the deep-well options, which makes geothermal power available at most locations on the Earth.  Quantify here geothermal power only (if there is co-generation heat - see 3.15).  See also IEA questionnaire "ELECTRICITY & HEAT", Tables 1 & 2. 

3.15   Geothermal heat used directly without heat pumps - see also 3.20 and IEA questionnaire ELECTRICITY & HEAT, Tables 1 & 2. 

3.16     Solar power potential comprises the total solar power from PV collectors, solar thermal power generation and solar chimneys.  The total potential comprises all sun-oriented roofs and other practically usable surfaces.  Use average insolation figures and available surfaces in each country to arrive at an estimate of the total solar power.  Apply a realistic average solar system efficiency to get the total max. solar thermal power generation capacity.  The prime energy is the solar radiation which is not quantified here (see also IEA questionnaire "ELECTRICITY"). 

3.17   Solar Heat potential comprises all sun-oriented roofs and other free surfaces suitable for solar thermal collectors.  Use the same surface figures as for solar power for hybrid solar collectors which harvest both simultaneously.  Include solar pond systems, salt drying ponds and solar dryers of any kind (see also IEA "ELECTRICITY & HEAT").

3.18   Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) comprises tropical areas where the yield is sufficient.  Besides electricity, OTEC may also produce heat and/or refrigeration - see 3.19.  OTEC-CHP example used for cooling and farming applications see on Big Island in Hawaii. 

3.19   Ocean Heat (or cooling) comes from OTEC co-generation.  See also 3.18. 

3.20  Heat by Heat Pumps comprise all systems using temp. differentials from air, water or soil.  See also distinction with geothermal heat 3.15. 

3.21   Individual fossil fuel vehicles comprise individual land vehicles propelled by gasoline, diesel or any type of fossil gas (for public transport see entries below). 

3.22   Electric vehicles (individual) comprise land vehicles driven by batteries and/or PV cells not for public transport (public transport see entries below). 

3.23   Renewable fuel vehicles (individual) comprise land vehicles propelled by bio-fuels, biogas, methanol, hydrogen, peroxide etc. from renewable energy sources including hybrid vehicles using such fuels, even if the motors are electric (here not for public transport - see separate entry below). 

3.24     Bicycles & Tricycles:  Estimate of total population and their average daily use for practical purposes (not for sports) to be multiplied by estimated average hourly muscle energy applied. 

3.25   Work Animals:  the average power performed and bio energy physically applied by animals for practical purposes, such as horses, oxen, elephants, camels, sledge dogs etc. used for transport and work based on average annual mileage and moved mass with TJ equivalent. 

For all types of energy indicate the final energy delivered to the users based on the best possible estimates beyond 1997. 

Methods for energy systems analysis  -  ISO 13600 Series

In the context of a more complete energy data base, another useful tool must be mentioned here, since in the past Century energy modeling and planning were mainly based on the predominant non-renewable i.e. finite, fossil and fissile energy resources with a 80 - 90 % share in the energy economy.

This new ISO 13602 standard created by Working Group 3 of the Technical Committee ISO/TC203 allows the complete analysis of all energy systems ranging from micro systems like light bulbs or simple kettles to macro systems from complex hydro power stations to complete national fuel infrastructures.

With this new energy evaluation and planning tool all energy system input and output variables can be identified, quantified and analyzed to determine the energy system efficiency, efficacy and environmental compatibility in terms of external cost, risks, climate influences and health impacts. The net embedded energy balance can be determined with this standard in the LCA context, as well the usefulness of energy systems in terms of produced energy services and byproducts.

The ISO13600 standards series is a practical means for the implementation of the globally harmonized integrated resource planning, not only for the depleting, finite energy resources but - more importantly - for the transition to decentralized sustainable energy systems, co-generation and hybrid concepts.

An ISO standard ISO13603 for a methodology on energy statistics and forecasting is under preparation. It will cover all possible energy supply and demand options based on a world-wide terminology as described above.

True Anecdote by the Author: 

“ In a lengthy committee meeting of ISO/TC28 in the early eighties one American API delegate exclaimed that progress is too slow with ISO petroleum testing methods and that ISO was an awfully stale body.“ 

Grob also said when patience on new petroleum measurement methods was nearly lost by some delegates, that ISO would better hurry up with petroleum standards before the ultimate depletion of the oil resources.  “Do we want to create petroleum standards for the post-petroleum age ?“ he asked sarcastically. 

Soon afterwards the so-called “fast-track“ standards procedure was initiated by ISO, but - mind you still - in less than two generations from now there is neither natural gas nor mineral oil left on planet Earth !

Gustav R. Grob dedicated a good part of his working life to international harmonization and standards, initiating and chairing many committees in TC28 (Petroleum Tank Calibration and Mass Measurement), TC30 (Mass Flow Measurement), TC197 (Hydrogen), TC203/WG3 (Methods for Analysis of Technical Energy Systems) and was also involved in IEC and OIML standards.  After studies as an electromechanical and industrial engineer and postgraduate degrees in marketing and logistics management, he worked on power generation and mine hoists with BBC (now ABB), elevators with GEBAUER (ex-OTIS), in the chemical industry with DU PONT, on hydraulics with APPLIED POWER and in the petroleum industry dealing with many multinationals through SGS-REDWOOD, before he co-founded the DELPHI consultancy in 1983.  Grob is now President of the International Clean Energy Consortium (ICEC), which he co-founded in 1991, when he also initiated the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development at the first World Clean Energy Conference in Geneva, prior to the Rio Conference on Environment & Development, where it was proclaimed.  His publications, speeches on energy and environmental matters and professional memberships are too long to be listed here.






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